To understand the qm view and be able to assess its plausibility (and its bearing on the plausibility of
relativity theory), one needs to understand exactly how the qm view explains a wide range of perplexing
observed phenomena. The essential facts to understand are listed below.
To understand most of these facts it is necessary to understand the mathematical agreement between the
qm view's equations and the experimental evidence. The equations page (via icon below) is the
quickest way to understand much of this mathematical agreement. If you have a physics background and limited
time, this Facts page and the Equations page are the most important ones to comprehend.
1. Facts about the speed of light relative to observers of the light
Modern physics theory, including relativity theory, is based on the assumption that the speed of light in a vacuum
(e.g. in intergalactic space) is the same relative to all observers, regardless of the observers' motions toward or
away from a light source. This constant-light-speed, c, assumption is supported by extensive experimental evidence.
However, modern physics theory cannot explain how the speed of light can be the same for two observers, O1 and O2,
who are momentarily next to one another, if O1 is moving toward the source of approaching photons and O2 is moving
away from the source, as shown below. The qm view explains
why the observed, constant speed of light, c, is a complex illusion similar to the simpler observed illusion of heavenly
bodies moving around Earth. Constant light speed, c, is one of many remarkable consequences of a medium through
which energy quanta (including the photons comprising light) move with a constant absolute speed, ca, and therefore
move with variable speeds, cr, relative to observers moving through the medium.
The quickest way to understand why the measured speed of light is a constant, c, is to go to the qm view
VIDEOS page and watch and follow the
mathematics in the two Introduction videos and then the Constant Light Speed, c, video.
2. Facts about Doppler energy shifts of light
Doppler redshifts and blueshifts of light cannot be explained if the constant-light-speed, c, postulate of
relativity theory is correct. For example, what possible physical cause(s) could there be for the blueshift and
redshift determined by O1 and O2 if the photons arriving from the source have a velocity relative to O1 that is the
same as their velocity relative to O2? The qm view shows why the Doppler shifts of electromagnetic energy, like
the Doppler shifts of sound energy, are caused by the motions of the source and the observers through the
3. Facts about energy in the quantum medium view
Current scientific evidence indicates that everything in our universe is comprised of energy. Can you think of anything
that we know exists (via scientific observation) that does not involve energy and the exchange of energy? Photons
and other quanta of energy contain energy, and quanta of matter contain energy, and the changes in the motions of all
mass/energy involves the exchange of energy. In the qm view, energy moving through the qm is the primary cause of all that
exists in the universe. The energy is in the form of distortions of the qm that propagate through the qm at a speed
determined by properties of the medium (like the speed of sound energy moving through a medium comprised of atoms depends
on properties of the medium). The qm is not like mediums comprised of atoms. Atoms are
much-larger-scale forms of energy than the oscillations of the qm comprising the subsystems of atoms. Oscillations of the
qm move through the qm with a speed more than 100,000 times greater than the speed of sound energy through most mediums
comprised of atoms. Oscillations propagating through the qm are responsible for the photons and other energy quanta which
transfer energy between the quanta of matter comprising atoms. In the qm view, quanta of matter are systems of
oscillations of the qm, and the systems can move through the qm at any speed less than the speed of energy quanta
through the qm. Changing a system's speed through the qm changes its energy because it results in Doppler changes in the
frequencies (and therefore the energies) of the system's internal oscillations.
The source of the energy in matter and the observed increase in mass of a body as the body's velocity relative to the
observer is increased is explained on pages 21–26 of this website.
4. Facts about the observed slowing of time due to a clock's motions
Experimental evidence shows that an atomic clock making a round trip ages less than a clock at rest where the trip
begins and ends (if other influences on the clocks' rates remain the same). This evidence has been used to support
relativity theory and the belief that relative motion between clocks causes an observer with a clock
(e.g. O1 or O2) to observe a slower clock rate in the reference frame moving relative to the observer.
This relative-motion belief results in the well-known "twins or clocks paradox" of relativity theory, which people
have tried to excuse in many ways. The qm view shows why the rate of evolution of any system depends on the system's
speed through the quantum medium, not its speed relative to some other system.
5. Facts about the observed foreshortening of moving bodies
Relativity theory predicts that bodies moving relative to an observer should appear foreshortened. For example, gold
nuclei moving at .99995 times the speed of light in the accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island,
New York are foreshortened in the direction of their observed velocity to 1% of their at-rest diameter. And according
to relativity theory, a hypothetical astronaut moving with the same speed in an easterly direction 10,000 km above
the lab would see Long Island with a length only 6% of its width. In the qm view, the gold nuclei are actually
flattened due to the effects of their high speed through the quantum medium (the primary effect being the anisotropy
of energy-exchange rates at subatomic scales). And the foreshortening of Long Island observed by the astronaut is an
illusion due to the astronaut's constant-light-speed, c, assumption and the physical changes throughout the
astronaut's reference frame due to its high speed through the qm. According to relativity theory, the gold nuclei are
not actually flattened and Long Island is not actually longer in the east-west direction, because the nuclei and island
have no actual, absolute dimensions. Relativity theory says that the observations of the astronaut are just as valid
as the observations of observers on Long Island. The qm view explains clearly why the apparent equal validity of
the observations is an illusion caused by the constant-light-speed, c, postulate on which relativity theory is based.
6. Facts about detecting the quantum medium
A good understanding of the qm view requires understanding why the quantum medium has been impossible to detect by
many different kinds of experiments, including the Michelson-Morley experiment. In spite of the difficulty determining
our velocity through the quantum medium, a variety of phenomena are evidence of this medium. For example, the observed
asymmetry of the cosmic microwave background radiation is what would be expected if the radiation has a symmetrical
pattern in the medium and propagates at a constant speed through the medium, and the sun has a speed of about
.0012 ca through the medium. The asymmetry should not occur if photons have a constant speed relative to the
source and observer. The best current evidence of the quantum medium is the wide range of important, perplexing
phenomena that are logical consequences of this medium. These phenomena include inertia, gravity, "relativistic
phenomena," Doppler red and blue shifts, and constant light speed, c. The fact that only the qm view explains logical
physical causes for all these diverse phenomena is strong evidence of the quantum medium. In addition to this evidence,
isn't the fact that the hypothetical astronaut in the preceding paragraph will observe an extreme foreshortening of Long
Island and flattening of the sun, moon, planets, solar system, and the entire cosmos evidence that the flattening is an
illusion? Is it reasonable for the astronaut to invoke relativity theory and claim that her observations are as good as
the observations in an inertial frame where stars appear spherical? Possibly the sun's absolute velocity will become more
apparent in the future. But even if we assume that the sun's center is at rest in the quantum medium, it is likely that
the phenomena observed as a result of this assumption will be good approximations of the absolute phenomena occurring in
the quantum medium. And all observers making this assumption will be in complete agreement about all observed times,
distances, and masses in the universe.
7. Facts about the observed symmetry of observed "relativistic phenomena"
According to relativity theory, the relative motion between two systems (e.g. O1 and O2 in the above figure)
causes the observers in each system to observe a foreshortening of the other system and a slowing of clocks and all other
processes in the other system. The qm view shows that this strange, observed symmetry is a natural consequence of the
quantum medium and the observers' constant-light-speed, c, assumption. The symmetry is the result of a combination
of physical causes, and it indicates that the causes are part of nature because they provide the only plausible
explanation for the observed symmetry. To understand the qm view, it is necessary to understand how the various
causes always combine to create the symmetry illusion.
8. Facts about the qm view and the wave-particle duality of mass/energy
Premise I of the qm view says that all mass/energy is comprised of oscillations of the quantum medium that move
through the medium at the speed of light when not impeded directly by matter (e.g. air), or indirectly
by large concentrations of mass/energy (e.g. stars) as specified by Premise II. Photons may be the
simplest of the oscillating systems. It is well known that the mass/energy of a photon is equal to its oscillation
frequency times the Planck constant. The nature of a photon's oscillation in the medium is unknown, but it could be
an in-out oscillation that is responsible for the mysterious wave/particle duality of photons.
Therefore, the qm view has a compatibility with the wave/particle nature of photons that seems impossible
with the standard particle model of mass/energy unless the particles are oscillations of a physical entity like
the quantum medium.
9. Facts about the transmission of mass/energy through the cosmos
Orthodox physics theory does not explain how energy quanta (e.g. photons) are transmitted through space.
Photons cannot be like tiny particles moving through empty space, because experiments show that photons emitted
from a source, S1, moving with high velocity, v, toward an observer, O, have the same speed relative
to O as photons emitted from S2, which is moving away from O. The quantum medium is a means for the constant-speed
propagation of energy quanta through space and for the transmission of larger systems of oscillations
(e.g. electrons) through space.
10. Facts about the maximum speed of mass/energy
Orthodox physics theory does not explain why energy quanta (including light) should have any particular fixed speed
through space. The qm view provides a reason because the speed of energy quanta through the quantum medium is
determined by the characteristics of the medium, just as the speeds of sound energy through air or water depend on the
properties of the mediums. Therefore, the qm view provides a reason for the maximum speed of light (or any other
form of mass/energy) relative to an observer. It explains why neutrinos or other particles comprised of oscillations
of the quantum medium cannot travel faster than light. A more specific explanation is not simple because the time and
distance standards in the observers' reference frames must be considered in any analysis of observed speeds.
11. Facts about the energy of mass/energy
The source of the tremendous energy contained in matter has been a mystery. In the qm view, the internal energy
of a system of mass/energy is due to the combined energy of all the oscillations of the medium comprising the system.
It is hard to accept that so much energy can be contained in so little space, but it is a fact that the energy
contained in the matter of a person weighing 50 kilograms or 110 pounds is equal to the energy of about 100,000
atomic bombs like the one that devastated Hiroshima. The qm view explains the source of so much energy.
The source of the energy in a body is the energy of the oscillations of the body's quanta of mass/energy in the quantum
medium. When it is understood that this view exactly explains the inertia of bodies and exactly explains the weak
gravitational attraction "force" between bodies, it will be apparent that this explanation for the energy of
mass/energy is probably correct.
12. Facts about the discrete subatomic forms of mass/energy
Currently the qm view provides no explanation for the many discrete, subatomic forms of mass/energy in
the quantum medium (e.g. electrons, quarks, antiparticles). However, we know of no plausible explanation
provided by any other theory of mass/energy (although we would not be surprised to learn of a plausible explanation).
The qm view's ability to explain physical causes for so much related phenomena (e.g. the energy and mass
of particles) indicates that finding realistic causes for the various subatomic particles probably requires a better
understanding of the quantum medium. The more people understand the qm view, the more likely that someone will
discover why certain systems of oscillations in the quantum medium should be more stable than others. Consequently,
the qm view needs to be better understood by more people.
13. Facts about the mass and inertia of mass/energy
The mass and inertia of mass/energy has been another unexplained mystery, and recently an extensive search has
been underway for a Higgs particle to provide other particles and matter with mass. In the qm view, all
quanta of mass/energy (e.g. photons, electrons, quarks) have their own inherent mass as a result of their
oscillations of the quantum medium, which are also their source of energy. If a Higgs particle provides matter with
mass, what is the source of the energy in matter? Although e=m·c2
correctly specifies the ratio of a quantum's energy to its mass, what is the source or cause
of this energy? People often speak as if the equation explains the cause of matter's huge internal energy.
The qm view is a theory of physical causes that explains mathematical relationships such as f=m·a and
e=m·c2. It explains why a force and work are needed to change the oscillation
frequencies of the oscillations comprising an energy quantum or a larger scale body, and thus change its energy
(whether its energy is increased or decreased). This is another aspect of the qm view that one needs to
understand in order to make an objective assessment of this view.
The source of the energy and inertia of matter and the observed increase in mass of a body as the body's velocity
relative to the observer is increased is explained on pages 21–26 and elsewhere on this website.
14. Facts about centrifugal forces
The prevailing, orthodox physics view of centrifugal forces is that they are nonexistent, pseudo forces. In the
qm view they are real forces caused by energy-exchange imbalances at the quantum level of matter that are the
result of the acceleration of a system of matter by an external force. The cause of the internal centrifugal forces
is the same as the cause of the forces within a body that result in the body's apparent resistance to linear
acceleration (i.e. the body's apparent inertia).
This is explained in the Rotation video.
15. Facts about the effects of massive systems on their environment
Galileo, Newton, Kepler, and others realized that massive systems affect other systems in their environment. Newton's
law of gravity especially helped understand how masses affect their environment. In the 20th century, Einstein's
relativity theory indicated that the universe has a spacetime continuum that is shaped by massive systems. In
contrast, the qm view indicates that the universe is evolving in a quantum medium in classical Newtonian space
and that every massive system slows the rate of energy exchange through the qm and thus through all mass/energy
systems in its vicinity. The slowing is a simple function of the mass of the massive system, the distance from the
massive system and Newton's universal gravitational constant, G. The cause of this gradient of slowing around a
massive system is unknown. Possibly it is the result of small oscillations in the medium caused by all mass/energy. This
gradient exactly accounts for the observed gravitational attraction between bodies, and it explains physical causes
for gravity. It explains why the observed gravitational force is weak compared with strong and electromagnetic forces.
In the qm view, the observed gravitational force is not a fundamental force. It is the result of internal
energy-exchange imbalances, like inertial forces, but it has an entirely different cause.
This is explained on the Equations
page, in the Gravity video, and on pages 28–31 of this website.
16. Facts about other effects of massive systems
An easily measurable effect of massive bodies is their influence on the times kept by atomic clocks. In the
qm view, the slowing of atomic clocks, quartz crystal clocks, and oscillating flywheel clocks at a particular
location relative to a massive body is the result of the decrease in energy-exchange rates (at all scales of
matter) caused by the massive body. The spherical gradient of energy-exchange-rate slowing around a massive body
causes other measurable effects. It causes the slowing of light passing near the sun and it causes the bending of
the light paths near the sun. The gradient around the sun also causes the "anomalous precessions" of planet orbits
around the sun.
This is explained on the Equations
page, on pages 28–31 and elsewhere on this website.
17. Facts about time travel
In the qm view, it is possible to slow the rate of evolution of any system of mass/energy (e.g. clock or
person) by increasing the system's speed through the quantum medium or by locating it closer to large concentrations
of mass/energy. But it is unlikely that the aging of people will ever be significantly slowed by time travel because
this would require either extremely high speeds and energies or extremely high gravities. Time travel back to the
past is theoretically impossible in the qm view. However, it is possible according to relativity theory, which
permits the illogical scenario in which someone travels back in time and makes their existence impossible by
preventing their birth (via murder or other means).
This is explained in the Time Travel
video and elsewhere on this website.
18. Facts about time, distance, and mass
In the qm view, the rates of clocks and the dimensions and masses of bodies keep changing by very small amounts
due to changes in velocity and proximity to massive bodies. This view of changing clock rates, dimensions, and masses
agrees with the related experimental evidence. Increasing the velocity of any system of matter through the quantum
medium decreases the system's rate of evolution, decreases the system's length in the direction of absolute velocity,
and increases the system's mass. Therefore, the seconds, meters, and kilograms specified by standard atomic clocks,
meter bars, and kilogram masses in controlled environments cannot be used for universal standards of time, distance,
and mass. The qm view shows that the virtual seconds, meters, and kilograms specified by the physical
standards can be converted into approximate absolute, universal units so that all observers can agree on
observed times, distances, and masses. Relativity theory causes observers in different inertial frames to disagree
on observed times, distances, and masses. For example, the observers cannot agree on the time for Earth to orbit the
sun, or the size of Earth's orbit, or the mass of the sun. Observers moving at high speeds relative to Earth will
observe a flattened sun, and they will not agree that the sun is approximately spherical. According to relativity
theory, the sun has no absolute shape. The inability of the observers to ever agree on their observations of time,
distance, and mass is inherent in relativity theory. It is due to observers assuming constant light speed, c,
and using the virtual units of time, distance, and mass specified by their physical standards.
This is explained in the qm view
and elsewhere on this website.
19. Facts about differences between the qm view and orthodox theory
The qm view results in a much different understanding of time, distance, mass, and other fundamental aspects
of nature, as the above facts indicate. It also indicates that the evolution of the universe probably had some
causes different from prevailing theory. Also contrary to what students are taught, the qm view shows that the
null results of Michelson-Morley-type experiments do not preclude the existence of a light-propagating medium.
The qm view predicts exactly the same observed virtual phenomena as special relativity theory
(i.e. for observers who assume constant light speed, c) and it predicts the same observed phenomena as general
relativity theory, except in cases of very large concentrations of mass/energy. To date, no one has identified any
inconsistency between the qm view and the experimental evidence, or any internal inconsistency, or any other
objection to the view other than it differs from relativity theory which they believe is correct. The fact that the
qm view explains physical causes for a wide range of phenomena for which physical causes have not been
apparent, and that it explains fundamental physical causes for relativity theory's agreement with most observed
phenomena is evidence that the qm view is probably correct.
20. Facts about scientific theories
Good scientific theories have long been crucial for improving our civilization. They help understand nature,
and this understanding has enabled people to improve their lives. Although good theories must agree with verifiable
observations, theories that agree with observations are not necessarily correct. The history of science shows that
theories can agree with observations and be very useful and can appear proven by extensive scientific evidence,
and still be fundamentally wrong and misleading. Ptolemy's geocentric universe theory is an example. It was not
a bad theory. What was bad was people concluding that it was a good representation of nature rather than a good
mathematical representation of observed phenomena. The qm view shows that relativity theory is probably
similar in this respect due to its constant-light-speed, c, assumption. It shows the need for a better way of
judging scientific theories. To determine a theory's likelihood of being a correct representation of nature, a
theory needs to be judged according to a variety of criteria in addition to its consistency with observed
phenomena. Carefully determining the plausibilities of our theories can help avoid implausible theories becoming
established and believed with unrealistic certainty. This might significantly help the advancement of science.
Why the qm view needs to be better understood by more people
The above facts and supporting information show that the qm view represents a deeper understanding of a wide
range of phenomena, including the phenomena that relativity theory correctly predicts but does not explain. Therefore,
the qm view represents a potential significant advancement in understanding nature. But it does little good if
this view is not understood by enough physicists who agree that it is more likely than relativity theory to be in
accord with nature. Presently, when few physicists understand the qm view, people need to determine for
themselves if the qm view or relativity theory is more likely to be correct. Eventually a consensus should emerge
and provide a clearer indication of which theory is more plausible. This could have a significant impact on how people
understand a variety of important phenomena including time, distance, energy, matter, inertia, and gravity, and it could
lead to advances not otherwise possible.
One reason for this page of facts is to show that the qm view pertains to a wide variety of phenomena and
that understanding only part of this view will not convince someone of its plausibility. It is natural for those
with an incomplete or poor understanding of the qm view to conclude that it must somehow be flawed.
Some think they do not need to understand the qm view to determine if it is sound because if it is sound they
will eventually learn about it. They are correct, and there is little incentive for them to spend time
understanding the qm view. Others concluded that, although the qm view explains and predicts the same
observed, virtual phenomena that relativity theory predicts, it requires a light-propagating medium for which there
is no experimental proof. They do not realize why the quantum medium cannot be detected by the many experiments that
tried to detect an ether. And they do not realize that constant light speed, c, Doppler energy shifts, inertia,
centrifugal forces, gravity, and many other poorly understood phenomena are physical evidence of this medium
because without the medium the phenomena cannot be explained in terms of logical, physical causes − −
and because some of the phenomena have no other realistic explanation.
Therefore, the consensus referred to above needs to be a consensus of people who at least understand the
qm view well enough to understand the above facts.
Due to the many aspects of the qm view, it cannot be understood quickly, although it is not difficult to
understand if one takes the time. It is easier to grasp than relativity, partly because it does not involve the
counterintuitive ideas that are inherent in relativity theory. If you take the time to understand the qm view
and its bearing on the above facts, we think you will find it more plausible than relativity theory.
If you disagree with any of the above, we would like to learn why and can be reached
How to understand the qm view
A good way is to simply read the short pages 1 to 33 on the qmview.net website. Some of these pages can be read
quickly but others will require careful study. Some have links to other pages such as the Glossary, which will be
A quicker way to understand the qm view is as follows:
1. Use this Facts page as a guide for what needs to be understood.
2. Study the
Equations page to get a quick
understanding of how the qm view's equations specify exactly a variety of phenomena including "relativistic"
phenomena, inertia, and gravity.
3. Go to the
Experiments page for
links to four experiments showing how the qm view explains physical causes for paradoxical, observed
phenomena caused by the constant-light-speed, c, assumption of relativity theory.
4. Study the qm view videos in the following order.
• Introduction (2 parts)
• Constant Light Speed, c
• Time Travel
• Rotation in the Quantum Medium
• Gravity (2 parts)
• Doppler Energy Shifts (3 parts)
You may need to stop or replay various parts of the videos in order to understand all the information
and follow the simple mathematics. These YouTube videos, and a brief description of each, can be found by
clicking the following icon.
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