Gravitational force (internal energy-exchange imbalance)
The figure at left shows a box within which photons b and t are emitted from the
bottom B and top T and travel to the opposite ends where they are absorbed. In the absence of massive body m,
the energy of photon b transferred from B to T is the same as the energy of photon t transferred from T to B.
However, according to Premise II of the qm view, a massive body causes a change in the qm which slows the rate of
energy transfer through the qm. Specifically, a massive body m slows the energy-exchange rate in any
physical system (e.g. atom) in its vicinity according to the following equation, where m is the
mass of the massive body in kga, is the distance from the massive body in LS, and G is
the Newtonian gravitational constant. The gravity-causing physical change ratio (rg) is the ratio of the
rate of round-trip energy exchange
in the body to the rate in the absense of m, much like rv is the ratio of the
rate of round-trip energy exchange in a body moving through the qm to the at-rest rate.
Just as the rates of physical processes are affected by rv, they are similarly
affected by rg. For example, a clock located at sea level runs slower than one located 1000 m higher, and
we can use the rg equation to determine the difference in clock rates (about 1E−13). Similarly, the
frequencies of photons b and t depend on rg at B (rgB) and rg at T (rgT). And the difference between
the emission energies of b and t (Δeg) is a function of Planck's constant h, the emission
frequency f when rg=1, and the difference between rgT and rgB, as follows.
We will use the rg and Δeg equations above to calculate Δeg for a box 3 ma long
(i.e. Δ=1E−8 LS) at Earth's surface. Earth's mass is 5.98E24 kg,
Earth's radius is about 6.38E6 ma or about .02126666 LS, and when distance is in LS units, G=2.47E−36.
Therefore, rgB=1/[1+(5.98E24·2.47E−36/.02126666)] = (1−6.9454253699E−10)
and rgT=1/[1+(5.98E24·2.47E−36/.02126667) = (1−6.9454221040E−10).
The difference between rgT and rgB is only 3.2659E−16, and
Δeg=h·f·3.2659E−16 J (a quantity we will be using on the next page). As shown in
the figure at left, this small energy-exchange imbalance between B and T in the box, Δeg, is due to lower energy photons
emitted at B (red dots) transferring less energy to T than the higher energy photons emitted at T (blue dots)
transfer to B. On the next page we determine the acceleration of a box necessary to create the same energy-exchange imbalance.